51. Member States, working in collaboration with all stakeholders, should develop policies and strategies at system and institutional levels to:

a) Maintain, and if possible, increase investment in higher education in order to sustain quality and equity at all times and foster diversification in both the provision of higher education and the means of funding;

b) Ensure adequate investments in higher education and research to reflect growing expectations and societal needs;

c) Put in place and strengthen appropriate quality assurance systems and regulatory frameworks with the involvement of all stakeholders;

d) Scale up pre-service and in-service teacher training with curricula that equip them to prepare students as responsible citizens;

e) Encourage women’s access, participation and success in higher education;

f) Guarantee equal access to underrepresented groups such as workers, the poor, minorities, the differently abled, migrants, refugees and other vulnerable populations;

g) Develop mechanisms to counteract the negative impact of brain drain while encouraging academic, staff and student mobility;

h) Support greater regional cooperation in higher education conducive to the establishment and strengthening of regional higher education and research areas;

i) Empower Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States to benefit from the opportunities offered by globalisation and foster collaboration between them;

j) Pursue the goals of equity, quality and success by developing more flexible entry pathways and assuring better recognition of prior learning and work experience;

k) Enhance the attractiveness of academic careers by ensuring respect for the rights and adequate working conditions of academic staff in accordance with the 1997 Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher Education Teaching Personnel;

l) Ensure active student participation in academic life, with freedom of expression and the right of organisation, and provide adequate student services;

m) Combat degree mills through multi-pronged action at national and international levels;

n) Develop more flexible and organised research systems which promote science excellence, interdisciplinarity and serve society;

o) Support the fuller integration of ICTs and promote ODL to meet increasing demands for higher education.