35. Given the need for increased funding for research and development in many countries, institutions should seek new ways of increasing research and innovation through multi-stakeholder public-private partnerships that include small and medium enterprises.

36. It is increasingly difficult to maintain a healthy balance between basic and applied research due to the high levels of investment needed for basic research as well as the challenge of linking global knowledge to local problems. Research systems should be organised more flexibly to promote science and interdisciplinarity in the service of society.

37. For the quality and integrity of higher education, it is important that academic staff has opportunities for research and scholarship. Academic freedom is a fundamental value that must be protected in today’s evolving and volatile global environment.

38. Higher education institutions should seek out areas of research and teaching that can address issues related to the well-being of the population and establish a strong foundation for locally-relevant science and technology.

39. Indigenous knowledge systems can expand our understanding of emerging challenges; higher education should create mutually beneficial partnerships with communities and civil societies to facilitate the sharing and transmission of appropriate knowledge.

40. In the face of increasingly scarce resources, stakeholders are encouraged to explore and intensify the use of electronic library resources and tools to support teaching, learning and research.